Agriculture has become a global business rather than a conventional occupation worldwide. It has gone through a number of revolutions which include the Green Revolution, Evergreen Revolution, Blue Revolution, White Revolution, Yellow Revolution, Biotechnology Revolution, and ongoing ICT (Information and Communications Technologies) Revolution. The sole motive behind these revolutions was to increase productivity to feed the growing world population. But, biotechnology and ICT revolutions are focusing not only on the multiplication of production but also in enhancing the quality of the food in a sustainable way to reduce agriculture footprints on the environment with the use of technology in agriculture. Due to the changing demands of the consumer for their food to be produced using natural resources, organically with greater attention to nutrition.
The use of technology in agriculture is categorized into three types viz. Hardware, software, and org-ware. The hardware technology involves physical tools, software involves the processes, skills, knowledge, and information; whereas org-ware involves organizational technologies. The latest technologies in agriculture are one of the three above or integration of all technologies, for example, a machine which needs to be operated manually is simple hardware, on the other hand, an automated machine which may or may not need a little human assistance is a combination of hardware and software technologies. The hardware represents different crop varieties, software represents farming practices or research by upcoming farming variables, and org-ware represents the local institutions assisting in the use of the latest technology in agriculture.
The impact of agriculture technology is measured depending on the changes in production, productivity, farm incomes, employment, and trading as well as its impact on the environment, society, and ethics. The introduction of IT (Information Technology) in agriculture has transformed the way communication in the complete agriculture value chain by making it faster and easier than ever before. The data related to market, weather, cultivation ideas and seasonal changes, updates related to banking, and insurance policies can be collected with a single click on a smartphone.
The nanotechnology has given scientists access to nanoparticles in the field and thus help farmers in growing healthier crops. Navigation of the field is needed from time to time, and the use of GPS (Global Positioning System) in agriculture has increased the accuracy and detailing of the farm planning, field mapping, soil sampling, tractor guidance, crop scouting, variable rate applications, yield mapping. Sensors play a vital role in understanding soil quality, crop health, weed attacks, water stress, and often nutrition value in crops. The latest technology in agriculture focuses on integrating and automating all technologies to carry out all farming activities from seeding to harvesting along with all benefits to farmers, consumers, and most importantly to the environment too.